Lawrence Factor is a world-renowned leader in the air and gas purification industry


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Lawrence Factor Purification Filters Mako Bauer

FAQ

X-pendable filter cartridges function by attracting and capturing contaminants onto various types of adsorbent media. These adsorbents can process a limited amount of those contaminants, however, and once the processing capacity has been reached, the cartridge must be replaced.

The amount of adsorbent capacity is influenced by:

  • The filtering application
  • Operating conditions
  • Throughput rate
  • Type of adsorbent media

Minor changes into any of these variables, especially operating temperature, can drastically impact the overall capacity of the filter cartridge. The purification X-perts at Lawrence Factor can help clients determine filter capacities based on the operating conditions of your particular system and site. Simply call your L-Factor dealer or our tech line at (909) 368-6797 to speak with an expert about this service.

When changing your adsorbent filter cartridges:

All cartridges in the system must be replaced at the same time (as a set).

Do not swap used cartridges from one filter tower to another.

Avoid downstream contamination in the system by replacing cartridges before they reach full processing capacity.

The maximum cartridge life once installed is six months (see above for variables), even if it has not reached its full processing capacity.

X-pendable cartridges come with a guaranteed 2-year shelf life as long as the airtight wrapper has not been opened or compromised. If you have any doubts about the cartridge manufacturing date, contact your dealer or our L-Factor customer service line to determine the remaining shelf life of the cartridge. After the 2-year period, the reliability and freshness of the cartridge should be treated as suspect.

Lawrence Factor warrants our products to the original purchaser for a period of 90 days from the date of original purchase. This warranty covers manufacturing defects in material and workmanship. During this warranty period, Lawrence Factor will, at its option, perform repairs or replace the defective product free of charge. If Lawrence Factor cannot repair or replace the defective item, it will refund the original purchase price.

This 90-day warranty does not apply to normal wear and tear of product items, unreasonable use, mistreatment, failure to follow applicable product instructions, or consequential damage. Modification or repair of any product made by anyone not authorized by Lawrence Factor will void this warranty.

This warranty and remedies set forth above are exclusive and in lieu of all others, whether oral or written, expressed or implied. Lawrence Factor, Inc. is not responsible for special, incidental, indirect, or consequential damages resulting from any breach of warranty, or under any other legal theory, including but not limited to loss of profits, equipment downtime, goodwill, damage to or replacement of equipment and property, and any costs associated with procurement of substitute goods, technology, or services.

You spent a lot of time and effort to become Scuba certified, choosing equipment carefully, making sure your equipment fit and functioned properly, and obtained the tank, buoyancy compensator and regulator to the highest quality level your budget allowed. You’ve even given thought to the importance of exercise and good nutrition as those factors impact safe diving practices.How much thought have you given to filling your tank with compressed air, your main life support?

Under normal circumstances, air is comprised of a mixture of about 20.9 percent oxygen and 78 percent nitrogen, with traces of argon, carbon dioxide, neon, helium, methane, krypton, hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and xenon making up the remainder. Is the air in your Scuba tanks the same as the air you breathe on the surface? In short, yes – but with some important differences. Natural breathing air can sometimes be altered by substances found in industrial contaminants. Minute levels of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, acetylene, sulfur dioxide, trace hydrocarbon solvents, and smog can be found in the air compressed into Scuba tanks. These contaminants are drawn into the tanks by the air compressor system and concentrated at levels up to 3500psi, on average. The air compressor system can also add by-products to the breathing air in the form of lubricating oils used to maintain the equipment. Contaminant levels can increase as a result of system wear and operation outside normal parameters. Just like the water in your kitchen tap, dangerous substances can be removed by a properly-designed and maintained purification system – part of any quality air filling station’s operating system.

Some of the contaminants concerning Scuba divers are carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, particulate matter and traces of lubricating oils. Even water vapor in the breathing air can be of concern. Some of these contaminants can be detected by smell or taste, while others may not. Contaminants in compressed breathing air can cause serious health problems over time, all without you ever knowing about it until it is too late. Other problems can occur during a dive, when contaminants can be suddenly dangerous or even lethal.The most harmful and immediate danger facing divers comes from carbon monoxide (CO). The safe limit in breathing air is 10 parts per million (ppm). When carbon monoxide combines with the hemoglobin found in human red blood cells, it prevents the blood from transporting oxygen to the brain and tissues. This effect is a form of suffocation. When CO levels exceed the safe minimum, they can create noticeable effects. At levels of 400 ppm, headaches and discomfort can be experienced. At levels nearing 4000 ppm, fatalities can occur.

Carbon dioxide is another contaminant sometimes found in compressed breathing air. This substance is a byproduct of animal (including human) metabolism. High levels are usually due to local atmospheric conditions or being in the vicinity of combustion/cooking exhaust. At higher levels of carbon dioxide contamination, effects can be as minor as hyperventilation to as serious as suffocation fatalities.

Another high-risk contaminant comes from oil vapor. This can come from the lubricating oils used to maintain breathing air/gas compressor systems. Although the effects are not as immediate or as extreme as those from carbon monoxide, breathing air tainted with oil contaminants can lead to serious health problems.

Water vapor can be considered a contaminant, and that moisture in the air often serves as a double-edged sword. Air that is free of moisture helps preserve diving equipment and prevents regulator freezeups in cold water, but that excessive dryness can lead to discomfort while breathing it. More humid air improves respiratory tract comfort but often leads to corrosion of the Scuba tanks and regulators exposed to it.

Several organizations set standards for breathing air as a means of establishing safety. Four of the most important include the United States Navy, the Compressed Gas Association (CGA), the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). OSHA regulates breathing air standards for commercial divers, not recreational divers.The diving industry itself is influential in creating safe breathing air standards. They dictate that breathing air suppliers subscribe to one of the major standards. PADI, for example, requires that facilities rated with by the organization as five stars must test air quality quarterly. Most recreational Scuba applications use the Grade E standard, which is described by the CGA as the minimum grade for safe breathing air among recreational divers.

The limits for Grade E air quality are:

  • 10 ppm carbon monoxide
  • 500 ppm carbon dioxide
  • 25 ppm total hydrocarbon (methane and other hydrocarbon contaminants)
  • 5mg/cubic meter oil/particulates

Water vapor content may vary according to the intended application of breathing air mixtures; however, most recreational diving purposes allow up to 67 ppm, or air that is 10 degrees lower in dew point than the worst weather conditions. Oxygen contained in the mix must be between 20 and 22 percent. Most established industry standards call for quarterly testing (every three months).

To remove harmful contaminants from breathing air/gas compressor systems, a number of materials are used. These are referred to in the industry as “purification media” and word by adsorbing, or attracting and retaining contaminants to the surfaces of the media granules.
Common purification media include:

  • Activated carbon to purify breathing air and to improve air/gas quality
  • Activated alumina to remove water vapor, condensables, and other vapors from breathing air
  • Silica gel to dehydrate air/gas downstream by removing water vapor in lower heat applications
  • Molecular sieves for dehydrating breathing air and laboratory gases in high-heat environments
  • Monoxycon for converting dangerous carbon monoxide to the safer carbon dioxide by serving as a catalyst.

Lawrence Factor carries a wide variety of these purification media and can help customers determine the right ones for their specific applications.

Lawrence Factor knows that over time, compressed air systems require maintenance and repair to keep them operating at peak performance. We carry a wide range of new parts from major compressed air brands like:

  • Bauer
  • Compair
  • Mako
  • Reavell
  • Poseidon

Our range of spare and replacement parts allow compressed air system operators to maintain or repair critical air/gas systems. These spare parts are manufactured by both OEM and aftermarket companies and offer many choices, including pressure gauges, hoses and tubing, priority and relief valves, manifolds, and condensate drains. Lawrence Factor has one of the largest selections in the industry, and we can help you locate the specific part(s) for your operation.

Most companies that provide breathing air or gas mixtures for fire rescue and Scuba divers adhere to industry standards for safety, routinely testing the quality of the compressed gases they produce. These test results are available to the end user. Compressed air companies worth their salt understand that breathing air free of contaminants is important from a health and safety perspective, and will conduct this routine testing as part of their regular business operations.Lawrence Factor makes breathing air testing easy with our exclusive and patented breathing air testing kits and the X-zam Labs testing protocol. We’ll even loan you the testing kit at no cost. Do it yourselfers can simply and easily collect samples into a vessel that operates just like the tanks you’re already used to filling. There are no complex gauges or gadgets to worry about, making the process effortless.

These tests can be conducted individually or customers may enroll in a program to have breathing air specimens analyzed on a regular, repeating schedule.